Lansing was platted out as a city of Michigan in 1847. Mass was celebrated for the first time in the log home of Thomas and Eleanora Saier. The Saiers later donated land on Chestnut Street for a church to be built.
The church building was started in 1856 and dedicated in 1864. In July, 1857, the Catholics in Lansing were placed under the care of the parish of the Annunciation at Corunna. In 1866, Fr. Louis Van Driss became the first resident priest in Lansing. In 1872, a school was opened. In 1874, three Sisters of Charity came to staff the school. Fr. Lafayette Isadore Brancheau came in 1897. A new temporary church and hall were built in 1904 on Walnut Street.
The present building was begun in 1911. The cornerstone of the church was laid on July 4, 1911 and the church was dedicated to Mary under the title of "Immaculate Conception" on December 8, 1913. In 1937, St Mary Church became the Cathedral for the Diocese of Lansing. In 2013 the Cathedral Parish celebrated the 100th Anniversary of this Cathedral building. Events were planned for each month during the year. In 2016 St. Mary will celebrate 150 years as a parish in Lansing, Michigan.
A new parish center was built under the pastorate of Msgr. James A. Murray. It was dedicated by Bishop Kenneth J. Povish in July, 1995.
On June 21, 2009 Holy Cross Parish in Lansing closed and merged with St. Mary Cathedral. Rev. Msgr. Bernard Reilly was named rector for St. Mary Cathedral in June of 2009.
St. Mary Church in 1866: